Win10 重新部署管理工具

管理员身份启动命令提示符后输入“DISM.exe /Online /Cleanup-image /Restorehealth”添加丢失的系统文件

企业级硬盘、NAS级硬盘、监控级硬盘、普通级硬盘的区别

一些“懂得多”的人会纠结企业级、监控盘的问题。在这之前,我要先请纠结党们明白“你需要什么”、“这是什么”。
先来说为什么这些人想要企业级和监控盘——更高端、更可靠、保修期更长。
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软件编程21法则

任何一个有经验的程序员都知道,软件开发遵循着一些不成文的法则。然而,如果你不遵循这些法则也并不意味着会受到惩罚;相反,有时你还会获得意外的好处。下面的就是软件编程中的21条法则: 阅读更多的»

查看端口号是否被占用

netstat -ano

我们可以知道某一端口被那个进程(对应PID)占用;
然后我们可以打开任务管理器;查看某一PID对应的进程名;
如果PID没有显示,菜单》查看》选择列》选中PID即可;
得知进程后,我们可以将进程杀掉;修改其使用的端口。

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XP中轻松获取未使用的IP地址

  在我们解决Windows 操作系统的DHCP故障时,有时要找出某个地址范围内有哪些地址没有被使用。只需建立一个批处理文件,要求它只返回那些未用的IP地址,然后再将命令的结果输入到一个文本文件中。

  在我们解决Windows 操作系统的DHCP故障时,有时要找出某个地址范围内有哪些地址没有被使用。只需建立一个批处理文件,要求它只返回那些未用的IP地址,然后再将命令的结果输入到一个文本文件中。

  作为网管员,在我们解决Windows 操作系统的DHCP故障时,有时要找出某个地址范围内有哪些地址没有被使用。本人以前介绍过一种方法:打开命令提示窗口,在For…in…Do循环中调用 ping命令。例如,为了找出在地址范围192.168.1.1 到 192.168.1.100有哪些地址没有被使用,可以使用这个命令:For /L %f in (1,1,100) Do Ping.exe -n 2 192.168.1.%f

  该命令会报告指定范围内的所有IP地址,不管是在用的还是未用的,用户都不得不在命令行窗口中翻看大量的内容。其实,我们完全可以避免这些麻烦,只需建立一个批处理文件,要求它只返回那些未用的IP地址,然后再将命令的结果输入到一个文本文件中。下面介绍方法:

  打开记事本,在窗口中输入如下的命令:

@Echo off
date /t > IPList.txt
time /t >> IPList.txt
echo =========== >> IPList.txt
For /L %%f in (1,1,100) Do Ping.exe -n 2 192.168.1.%%f   Find
"Request timed out." & echo 192.168.1.%%f Timed Out >>
IPList.txt & echo off
cls
Echo Finished!
@Echo on
Notepad.exe IPList.txt


  将此文件存为IPTracker.bat,关闭记事本程序。

  需要注意的是,在这个批处理文件中,整个的For…In…Do命令由几个被“&&”连接起来的命令组成。该命令以“For” 开始,以“Off”结尾,而且整个命令必须在一行上。当然,如果用户要使用此方法的话,需要使用用户自己的IP地址来替换示例中的IP地址。

  以后,如果用户要解决DHCP问题,可以在浏览器窗口中定位并双击IPTracker.bat文件,然后启动一个IP地址跟踪工具,这个批处理只查找那些未用的IP地址,并将结果存到记事本文件中。(在此例中,这个保存的批处理文件成为一个IP地址跟踪工具,它可以一次创建,反复使用。)

  注意:此方法只适用于Windows XP Professional(专业版)

来源: 硅谷动力 | 链接: 原始地址

Firefox浏览器中的7个隐藏页面

很多人都把IE的启动页面设成“about:blank”以加快IE的启动速度,当然,Firefox中也具有类似的功能: about: 以不带参数的“about:”命令启动Firefox会显示Mozilla的“关于…”的信息,跟从菜单中选择的帮助-关于效果一样,严格来说它并不算是隐藏页。 about:buildconfig 显然,这样会显示构建平台配置和参数。 about:cache 显示用户磁盘缓存的信息与统计数据,包括缓存所在目录等。而Firefox在默认情况下是不允许用户查看缓存了的网页的。 about:config 这里有很多设置选项,一旦设置错误浏览器就不能正常工作了,所以用户要小心设置。 about:plugins 这个参数将会显示Firefox上安装的所有插件的信息。 about:credits 显示所有对Firefox的开发作出贡献的人员列表,用户可以进行投票。 about:Mozilla 奇怪的事发生了,这会显示“Mozilla之书”,但实际上并没有显示什么实际的书。

你的电脑在说谎 Your PC Is Lying To You

2006年12月18日20:33

我以前认为,我了解我们与电脑之间的关系。我曾经很信任我的电脑,虽然多少有点不情愿。但是现在我明白了,电脑是个说谎大王,是个骗子,这都是进度条(progress bar)惹的祸。

大家都知道进度条是什么东西,即使你以为自己对此一无所知。当你安装软件、下载文件或者打开一个程序的时候,就会有一个小小的提示窗口弹出来,这就是进度条。它通常看起来像一个油量表,从左到右逐渐被填满。有时,它会提供更多的信息,比如执行这个指令可能会花费多少时间等。它或许看上去没有什么坏处,但事实上进度条早已欺骗、愚弄了我们。

我们犯的第一个错误就是认为进度条确实在衡量进度,显示出你向电脑发出的任务指令的执行情况。我能够想到的现实世界中与此最为贴近的等价物就是电梯上的显示屏幕,它能够显示你所处的楼层。为了了解进度条名不副实的原因,我们需要回到使用单色屏幕以及C: >等DOS命令的旧时岁月,那时电脑会在屏幕上显示一连串小点来表示它正在处理某些命令。 Mac在其缤纷多彩的用户界面下将这些小点点换成了一只手表,它的指针在不停的转动。而微软(Microsoft)带给我们的是一个不断倾倒的沙漏和文件从一个文件夹飞向另一个的简单画面。

但是这看起来也不够。看着文件图标从屏幕的一端飘向另一端,或者浏览器中的地球图标在不停的转动,这都不错。但是,它并没有告诉我们还有多少文件要飘过去,地球图标还要转动多少次。因此,进度条就应运而生了。现在,你可以看到一个进度表不断被填满,或许还能看到文件的数量、字节、时间以及其他细节。进度条为我们提供了对生产率的新展望,这样我们就可以确切地知道在电脑完成工作之前,我们还有多长时间去洗手间、喝杯咖啡、读份报纸或者结次婚。

突然之间,我们能获得详尽的信息了:“这个任务已完成34.56%。”“剩余时间14.59分钟。”是的,也会出现一些怪事:过分乐观的进度条在任务明显刚刚开始的时候却告诉你已经完成了。或者正在处理的任务所需的时间还剩“约 2023406814小时”(真的,你可以到tinyurl.com/swsvy看看)。或者出现微软式的谜语“进度条可能显示文件下载已经完成,事实上下载仍在进行中。在另一些情况下,它或许显示文件下载正在进行中,但事实上下载已经完成了。”(“微软分钟”(Microsoft Minute)也因此应运而生,因为它和实际的分钟长短没有任何关系。)

这些反常现象也凸现了进度条存在的一个问题。啊,是两个问题。一个是电脑的,一个是我们自己的。考虑到电脑内部各种芯片及电路,它们本来就不擅长测量时间。电脑内部在同一时间内要处理的任务太多了,以致于它根本无法准确地判断自己完成所有任务需要的时间。你可能会看到这样的情形:进度条显示某个任务还需要3分钟,然后降到2分钟,之后或者保持不变,或者跳回3分钟── 甚至是45分钟。这种情况就说明电脑已经混乱了。

另一个问题就是我们自己,我们也会犯错误。我们喜欢胡乱摆弄,很容易感到厌倦。我们会开启新的程序。如果看不到程序进展的任何迹象,我们就会不停的点击鼠标。这一切都会为进度条的计算工作增加难度。因此进度条不得不变得更聪明一些──不是在计算方面,而是在了解我们的心理方面。因此,就有了所谓的“不确定进度条”。根据定义,这种进度条不对任何指标进行衡量。你或许已经看到过这样的进度条了:进度显示缓缓地向右移动,之后它会重新开始。这不是一个错误。微软的网站上还有相关文件帮助编码员创造这样的进度条。其中的一个文件的名字是“创建一个不前进的进度条”(Building a Progress Bar That Doesn't Progress)。这种进度条就象是一部能显示你到达了一个楼层、但拒绝告诉你是哪一层的电梯。

这或许听起来很不科学,但是事实不是这样的。它就是所谓的“检验用户能够忍受多久。”Atlassian Software Systems Pty. Ltd.的程序员、教师查尔斯?米勒(Charles Miller)估计,如果任何进度条显示超过15秒钟,用户“就会开始不信任它”。虽然多少有点不屑,米勒的建议是一个与实际状况没有多少联系但看起来很现实的进度条,它会在屏幕上不均衡地变化。他把这种进度条成为“安慰型进度条”(Placebo Bar)毫不令人惊讶。米勒说:“它是一个写的很不错的软件。告诉用户他们需要知道的信息,而不用那些没什么帮助的内容分散用户的注意力。如果说得极端一点的话,这个程序有时候为了用户(自己)的利益甚至会撒谎。”

我担心,让用户实时了解电脑内部实际运行的时代或许已经结束了。雅虎 (Yahoo)在这方面更进一步,它提供的新邮件服务下载速度非常缓慢,为了分散用户对这一点的注意,它采用了一个身着紫色上装的动画代言人Liam。在用户等待下载的过程中,Liam或跳霹雳舞,或踢足球,或进行拳击练习,或在一个儿童跳跳玩具上蹦来蹦去。看,进度条现在都能为我们提供娱乐了。最终,当电脑在那里满无边际的运行时,我们或许还能欣赏到短篇电影。

通过上面这些情况进行逻辑推理的话,最终的结论将是:要创造一种除了分散注意力什么都干不了的进度条。我很高兴的告诉您,现在已经有这样的进度条了:Mac用户使用虚假进度条已经有一阵了;居住在英国的程序员詹姆斯?罗伯茨 (James Roberts)为Windows用户推出了一个类似的进度条Fake Progress Bar (tinyurl.com/wh7n9)。与现实世界结合得最紧密的恐怕要算埃亚尔?伯斯坦(Eyal Burstein)的进度条了,它看起来有点像一盏圆柱形灯,能够衡量“搬家、结婚、到其他国家居住或者做好人”等各种事情的发展进程,时间段最长可达 18年。他说,任何事情都可以,只要它是一个长期的目标、而不是精准的科学。这一点与电脑进度条相差无几。

最后让我们来看看加利福尼亚的艺术家乔?麦凯(Joe McKay)。他对“进度条魔鬼”感到十分失望,这促使了他创建了一个真正的进度条:这个被称为“Big Job”的东西是一个可以显示进度的管子,它像一个真正的进度条那样并没有以均衡的速度前进,偶尔会猛进一下,然后迈向终点。”当到达终点的时候,会响起铃声,Big Job就会重新设置,从头再来。

Jeremy Wagstaff

(编者按:本文作者Jeremy Wagstaff是《华尔街日报》科技专栏“Loose Wire”的专栏作家,栏目内容涉及科技产品、电脑、软件等相关领域。)

英文:
I thought I understood the relationship we have with our computers. I used to, however begrudgingly, trust mine. Now I know it is a liar and a cheat. Blame it on the progress bar.

You all know what the progress bar is, even if you don't think you do. It's the little indicator that pops up when you're installing software, downloading a file or opening a program. It usually looks like a fuel gauge, filling from left to right. Sometimes there's more information, such as how long the task is likely to take. It may look harmless enough, but in fact the progress bar has turned us all into dupes and fools.

Our first mistake: to think the progress bar measures, well, progress. As in how much progress was being made in the task you had set the computer. The closest real-world equivalent I can think of is the indicator on an elevator, which tells you what floor you're at. To understand why the progress bar is not what it seems, we need to go back to the old days of monochrome screens and C:> prompts, when the computer would indicate it was doing something by lacing a series of dots across the screen. The Mac, with its graphical user interface, changed all that by introducing a wrist watch with circling hands. Microsoft gave us the tipping hourglass and files floating from folder to folder.

But this, it seems, wasn't enough. It's all very well watching file icons floating across the screen, or a globe whizzing around in your browser. But it didn't tell us how many more files there were to float, how many more revolutions the globe was going to make. So the progress bar was born. Now you could watch a gauge filling up, along, perhaps, with some detail about the number of files, bytes, hours or whatever remaining. The progress bar offered a glimpse of new vistas of productivity, where we knew exactly how long we had to go to the bathroom, get a coffee, read the paper or get married before the computer was ready for us.

Suddenly we were offered tantalizingly specific information: 'This task is 34.56% done.' 'There are 14.59 minutes remaining.' Yes, there were oddities: the wildly optimistic bar that told you it was finishing up when it clearly had just started. Or that the time remaining for the task in hand was 'about 2023406814 hours.' (Really: Check out tinyurl.com/swsvy.) Or Microsoft conundrums where 'the progress bar may appear to indicate that loading of the document has finished when it is still in progress. In other instances it may indicate that loading of the document is still in progress when it is actually complete.' (This has given rise to the 'Microsoft Minute,' so called because it bears little relation to a real minute.)

These anomalies highlighted a problem with the progress bar. Well, two. One was the computer. The other was us. Computers, for all their internal chippery and circuitry, aren't good at measuring time. There are just too many internal tasks going on for them to make an accurate assessment of when they will all finish. Chances are you've seen a progress bar telling you something is going to take three minutes, go down to two minutes, then either stick there or creep back up to three minutes -- or 45 minutes. That's the computer getting confused.

Partly, too, we're at fault. We're fiddlers. We get bored easily. We start up other programs. If we don't see some evidence of something happening, we'll keep clicking. All this further confuses the progress bar's calculations. So progress bars have had to get smarter. Not at measuring progress, but at understanding us. Hence what's called the 'indeterminate progress bar.' This is a progress bar that, by definition, doesn't measure anything. You might have seen one: It looks like a progress bar, the gauge gradually moving to the right edge -- that is, until it starts moving back again. This isn't an error. There are documents on Microsoft's Web site that help coders create them. One is actually called 'Building a Progress Bar That Doesn't Progress.' This kind of bar is like an elevator that tells you that you've reached a floor but refuses to tell you which one.

This may all sound terribly unscientific, but it's not. It's called Figuring Out How Much the User Will Put Up With. If any bar lasts longer than 15 seconds, the user 'will begin to mistrust it,' estimates Charles Miller, a Sydney-based blogger, programmer and teacher at software developer Atlassian Software Systems Pty. Ltd. His recommendation, tongue only slightly inside his cheek, is a progress bar that bears no relationship to what is actually going on, but looks realistic, right down to moving unevenly across the screen. Unsurprisingly, he calls it the Placebo Bar. 'Well-written software,' says Mr. Miller, 'tells the user what they need to know, and doesn't distract them with things that aren't helpful. And if you take that to the extreme, sometimes the program might even have to lie to the user for (the user's) own good.'

I fear the days of keeping users informed about what's really going on with their computers may be over. Yahoo has taken it a step further, distracting users from the slow loading of its new email service with a purple-tank-top wearing icon called Liam (mail backwards, in case you missed that). Liam does a break dance, kicks a soccer ball, shadowboxes and bounces on a kids' hopper toy while you wait. So now we have the progress bar as entertainment. Eventually we'll have short movies to watch while our computer fiddles.

The logical conclusion of all this would be to make a progress bar that doesn't do anything except distract. This, I'm pleased to say, is already available: Mac users have had several fake progress bars for a while; a Windows equivalent, the Fake Progress Bar (tinyurl.com/wh7n9), has been launched by United Kingdom-based programmer James Roberts. The real-world equivalent is probably Eyal Burstein's Progress Bar, which looks like a kind of cylindrical lava lamp, and can measure, over any period up to 18 years, events such as 'moving house, wishing to get married, wishing to move countries (or) becoming a better person.' Anything, he says, 'that is a long-term goal but not an exact science.' Not unlike its computer equivalent.

I leave the last word to California-based artist Joe McKay, whose frustration with what he calls 'the demon of the progress bar' led him to build a real one, a tube with a gauge that moves from left to right called the Big Job, which 'like a true bar . . . does not move at a constant rate, but randomly jerks and starts its way to the finish.' When the gauge reaches the end, a bell rings and the bar, fittingly, 'resets itself and it starts all over again.'

Jeremy Wagstaff
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